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Garlic

Allium sativum

Herbs gallery - Garlic



Common names

  • Clove Garlic
  • Da Suan
  • Garlic
  • Poor-man's-treacle
  • Rashona
  • Rustic's Treacle
  • Stinking Rose
  • Tricolor Garlic

The common kitchen herb, the garlic - Allium Sativum to botanists - is a familiar herb and culinary spice. This perennial herb is known for its white colored bulb that is composed of small white cloves that have a very peculiar odor and tangy taste. The various forms of sulphur compounds found inside each clove are responsible for the unique smell of the garlic. The smell of the garlic is of much renown and has attracted a lot of commentary. At different times throughout history it has been said that the garlic is "an herb that only the prince of hell himself could enjoy the aroma of full time with nary a complaint." This distinct smell is due to the heavy accumulation of the rather smelly sulphur compounds in the underground storage bulb of the herb. The garlic is used widely as a vegetable as well as in herbal medicine.

The garlic plant itself is not a remarkable herb on first sight, growing about two feet tall with flat, long, and pointed leaves - the main repute of the garlic lies in its underground storage bulb. The herb bears flowers in mid summer and the colors of the flowers can range from pink to white in different varieties. Garlic flowers are edible and are consumed in many places. The garlic plant comes in many varieties and cultivars - each with its distinct characteristics. The American or California garlic varieties come in many large and white skinned types. There are also early and late cultivars of the garlic that can be grown at suitable times. Garlic varieties with pinkish or purple skinned bulbs are variously known as the Chilean, the Creole, the Mexican or the Italian type. While it seems to grow best in dry and mild climatic regions, the garlic grows rather well in most places in the continental United States and is much naturalized in this country. The bulbs of most garlic varieties that are grown in northern climates are not large due to the shorter growing seasons. A relative of the garlic called the "elephant garlic” - A. ampeloprasum to botanists - develops prodigious heads or bulbs, each with four to six large cloves and each of these bulbs can often reach the size of an orange fruit.

The herb known as the “Rocambole “- A. sativum var. ophioscorodon to botanists - is yet one more garlic like plant that is sometimes grown by garlic aficionados of the world. This particular herb is also known by many other names including the Italian or the French garlic and has a rather striking appearance. This herb has numerous flat leaves like those of the garlic chives plant - A. tuberosum - that tend to appearing in the spring, it also bears looped flower stalks in the summer months. The variety of garlic has a “floral head” that opens to reveal the presence of a cluster of bulbils inside the bulb instead of flowers as in other garlic varieties. The “rocambole” is entirely edible and all parts of the plant are consumed. The bulbs produced by this variety are also harvested like regular garlic bulbs and used for culinary ends. French or Italian garlic is a good crop to grow for other reasons not connected to culinary uses alone, according to people who have cultivated it. One major reason cited by these cultivators is that the bulbs of this variety of garlic tend to keep very well and are easy to store. The other reason is that the cloves on the bulb are a lot easier to peel off. The final reason given is that the distinct flavor of this variety of garlic is quite good compared to other varieties of garlic. Though seldom offered as a seed plant in nurseries, the ‘rocambole” is readily available through some mail-order seed houses.

The garlic herb is an effective herbal remedy to treat viral, bacterial, fungal, and other parasitic infections in the body. A compound released by crushed raw garlic called allicin, is known to be much more potent as an antibiotic than the common antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline used in most standard medical regimens. Remedies made from the garlic are usually employed in treating problems such as chronic sore throats, common colds, flu, infections in the bronchial and general pulmonary systems, to treat infections of the gut and also to help reestablish the natural populations of beneficial bacteria in the gut - these helpful bacteria in the gut are often eliminated during an infection or on the use of orthodox antibiotic treatments to treat infections. The remedies made from the garlic are also effective and potent for treating intestinal worms as well as problems such as candidiasis. Garlic remedies can also be used topically to treat thrush affecting the mouth or the vaginal cavity. The general rate of digestion is improved by garlic; the herb also helps alleviate excessive gas and abdominal distension in the body. The remedies made from the garlic also help boost the rate at which food is absorbed and assimilated in the intestines. Garlic is also a good remedy for blood sugar related problems in diabetics as the herb boosts the secretion of insulin in the pancreas - thus helping the body better regulate sugar levels.

The remedy made from the garlic also has a decongestant action and is very useful in treating problems affecting the respiratory passages. At the same time, the expectorant action of the garlic remedy is excellent for treating acute and chronic bronchitis, to treat whooping cough as well as bronchial asthma, it is also effective in treating sinusitis, in the treatment of chronic catarrh, in the treatment of hay fever and rhinitis and other allergen induced complaints. Fevers can be alleviated by consuming garlic - the herb induces perspiration in the body and this helps in lowering the elevated body temperature. Elevated blood cholesterol levels are also lowered to a significant degree on consuming garlic regularly. The elevated blood pressure in the body and the tendency to form clots is also lowered by garlic - this effect of the herb is helpful in the prevention of heart attacks and strokes in susceptible patients. The blood vessels in the body are also opened up and dilated by the action of garlic - this action results in an increase in the flow of blood to different tissues in the body, thereby improving the general circulation. The beneficial action of garlic helps relieve cramps and alleviates general circulatory disorders affecting a person. The evidence from recent clinical research points out that garlic can act as potent anti-carcinogen and possesses strong anti-tumor properties, due to the fact that it is a powerful antioxidant by virtue of the numerous sulphur compounds found in it. Garlic is also believed to help the body deal better with the effects of nicotine and pollution, helping protect the body against the destructive effects of such long term exposure to irritants.

Parts used

Cloves.

Uses

Since very early in human history, the garlic has held an esteemed position among common herbs due to its healing powers and its use as a spice. The garlic was used to treat all kinds of infections, ranging from diseases like tuberculosis to typhoid fever before the development of anti-biotic drugs. In fact, the garlic was used as a remedy for wounds till quite recent times and the herb was often employed to dress the wounds sustained by soldiers fighting during the World War I.
All kinds of infections affecting the chest can be treating using the garlic as the primary herbal remedy. The remedy made from the garlic is good for the treatment of common colds and flu, as well as in treating ear infections, and as an herbal aid in reducing the amount of mucus produced in the nasal passages. The garlic remedy is also effective in treating infections of the digestive system. This herbal remedy is also the treatment of choice to rid the body of all kinds of intestinal parasites and pathogens. As human blood is thinned by the garlic, it actively helps in preventing the onset of many dangerous circulatory problems and keeps the chance of strokes at bay. Elevated cholesterol levels and high blood pressure affecting a person is also lowered on treatment with garlic remedy.

Other medical uses
Culinary uses

Many dishes contain garlic as an essential seasoning. Garlic used in the preparation of food may be fresh, dried, or freshly ground. Garlic helps in increasing the flavor of all kinds of dishes including seafood, poultry preparations, various pasta items, all kinds of meat dishes, vegetables and meat stews. It can be added to casseroles, vegetables, and soups; it brings zest to salads and salad dressings. Many cuisines cannot exist without using some garlic in the preparation of the meal. The dish known as ailloli, which is a hearty and thick French mayonnaise prepared using eggs, olive oil, and crushed garlic is one dish that cannot exist without the use of garlic. Indian, Mediterranean, Chinese and many other cuisines will not be what they are if it weren't for the garlic.
Fresh cloves of garlic can be ground in a press or mortar and pestle, the alternate method is to hit the cloves sharply using the flat end of a chopping knife. There is a lot of debate in culinary circles about the appropriate amount of garlic needed to be used in any dish. The tolerance of the diner should probably be the factor that decides the issues, it may be best to use garlic sparingly till what is required by the diners. One interesting points found through research is that the huge consumption of garlic and red wine in Mediterranean countries may be responsible for the low incidence of some types of cancers in these regions.
The whole cloves of the garlic can be steamed or bake and consumed with the daily meal. Cooking tends to make the strong acrid flavor of the garlic milder. At the same time, burnt garlic always ends up tasting bitter and this should be avoided. If garlic is to be fried, the oil being cooked must not be too hot, as the garlic will then develop an acrid taste and become tasteless.
The skin of freshly peeled garlic cloves must be prevented from sticking to the fingers when it is being peeled. A way to avoid this stickiness is to immerse all the garlic cloves in boiling water for thirty seconds before peeling. The cloves can then be removed from the water, dried and cool, and then peeled.
Salt flavored using garlic is widely employed on a commercial basis to flavor different kinds of foods sold in the market. Garlic salt is also quite a popular standby in some home kitchens; however, the high sodium content of this product may not be the best choice for flavoring dishes if the intent is to cook with the health of the heart in mind.

Habitat and cultivation

The garlic is probably native to central Asia and is believed to have originated from there. However, it has been extensively cultivated on a worldwide basis for many centuries and is one of the most familiar kitchen herb in the world.
The garlic plant grows optimally in rich and well drained soils, possessing high amounts of organic compounds. At the same time, it is also possible to successfully grow the garlic in a wide range of soil varieties and climatic conditions. The garlic tolerates a pH range from slightly acidic 5.5 to an alkaline 8.5 - growing optimally within these extremes.
The garlic grows optimally in sites that have good exposure to sunlight; however, it can also grow successfully at sites with a partial shade. The growing garlic plants must not be given excess water or the bulbs will rot and the crop will be ruined.
Garlic can be grown from the cloves or the bulbils as most garden grown garlic will not produce seeds. Many nurseries and garden catalogs have the cloves and bulbils on sale.
Garlic cloves are usually planted in seedbeds early in the spring or late in the fall. Garlic planted in the fall tends to result in the best yields. This is mainly due to the fact, that the garlic plant requires a rather long growing season of a minimum of four months to grow to an optimal size. Garlic plants planted in the soil late in the month of September or in October can be expect to show their growing tops emerging from the soil by the month of November - by winter, all the plants will have rooted well at the site. Tender garlic plants have cloves that remain dormant over the winter; these will only resume growth in the spring when the snow melts. For optimum growth later and to successfully form new bulbs, the dormant cloves or young plants require some exposure to cold temperatures ranging from 0°C to 10°C - 32°F to 50°F - for a period of four to eight weeks. The dormancy of garlic plants is broken by the increasing daylight hours during the spring. This also leads to the stimulation of the plants and encourages bulb formation in the plants.
Garlic cloves must be planted into the soil with the pointed end up towards the surface. A planting depth of five cm - two inches - below the soil's surface is ideal for optimum growth. Each individual clove must be planted a minimum of eight cm -three inches - deep in the soil. Garlic plants require some space from neighboring plants to grow well, plant the cloves leaving a space of fifteen cm - six inches - around each clove to give the seedling some room.
It is important to tend growing garlic plants with care, as strong movement of the soil around the shallow rooted garlic plants will result in damage to the roots and hence retard the development of such plants. In mid-summer, it becomes necessary to cut back the flowering stalks on the plants, this helps in channeling all the plant's energy into the development of storage bulbs resulting in a good yield.
The garlic is normally free of pests and common plant diseases - it is a hardy herb compared to many other cultivated plants. When growing garlic, in the northernmost range, it becomes necessary to mulch the cloves or young plants over the winter particularly if the snow cover in the area is limited.

Containers can be used to grow garlic plants, this is a good way of cultivation particularly when a suitable cold storage area for such containers is available during the months of winter. This storage area can include an unheated garage or garden shed. The soil must be moist when during freeze up; the soil must again be checked for moisture content during the thaws in mid-winter. In late March, the containers can be brought out of storage and if everything has gone as planned - green spears will soon poke up from the soil. This method of growing in container is redundant for regions with warmer climates and the cold storage arrangement isn't necessary. All the garlic containers can be kept outside over the winter without fear of losing the crop.

Research

Extensive laboratory based studies on the garlic has been conducted from the 1980s onwards in places like Germany, Japan, and the United States. However, till date, most clinical authorities still have a lot of disagreement over the exact nature and benefits of the remarkable anti-biotic action seen in the garlic. The compound called alliin present in the garlic is released when the fresh clove is crushed; it is broken down instantly by alliinase into allicin - the main active compound in garlic. A potent anti-septic and anti-biotic action is evident in the compound allicin and in the other chemical constituents of the volatile oil found in the garlic. The presence of these compounds is an explanation for the effectiveness of garlic in relieving even severe infections like chronic dysentery and related digestive disorders.
The ability of garlic to lower elevated blood pressure was also confirmed by clinical trials carried out in the 1980s. In fact, garlic reduces blood lipid - fats - levels, resulting in better control of hypertensive disorders.

Constituents

Garlic contains volatile oil with sulphur containing compounds (notably allicin, alliin and ajoene); enzymes, B vitamins, minerals, flavonoids.

Usual dosage

Different people use garlic in different ways, and there are individuals who actually chew one whole clove of raw garlic daily to boost their health. The best way to take garlic for those who prefer it over other herbs, is in an odor controlled, enteric coated tablet or capsule form that is made with a standardized allicin potential. These tablets or capsules can be taken at doses of 400-500 mg one or two times daily - for a total intake of 5,000 mcg of allicin a day. The tincture can also be taken instead, at doses of 2-4 ml thrice a day. Taking garlic in this way boosts health and reduces the chances of many diseases.

Side effects and cautions

Garlic is enjoyed as a food by most people and garlic remedies are also well tolerated by and large. However, some individuals can experience dermatitis on being exposed to garlic dust and these people need to take care when using garlic for any purpose.
Some of the side effects of consuming garlic include a reduction in the clotting time of blood; this effect of the herb can lead to the development of medical problems in individuals already on aspirin or those using anticoagulant medications on a routine basis.
Diabetics should be aware that consuming large doses of garlic, in pill form, as capsules, etc, even in standard medicinal quantities can interfere with insulin therapy in the long term.
All individuals interested in consuming garlic extracts must consult with a physician; this is especially true of people who already suffer from any type of medical problem which requires the regular use of some prescription medication. Consulting a doctor before beginning garlic supplements is the recommended to avoid side effects. While the consumption of garlic consumption is generally safe, some medical authorities speak against the consumption of large amounts of garlic by pregnant or breast feeding women. The Mediterranean diet is rich in garlic, the regular consumption of the garlic in many culinary dishes by the people in this region, has been connected to the lowered risk for certain cancers in the people living here.

How it works in the body

Garlic's distinctive smell is due to the presence of the volatile oil. The oil contains the compound called allicin that has been proven to induce an antibiotic action over the Staphylococcus aureus strain of bacteria. It is also effective over other bacterial strains and in general, it can be used to treat all bacterial infections in the human body. Infection caused by Candida albicans has also been successfully alleviated using allicin as the primary remedy. The allicin also possesses a potent hypoglycemic effect and helps in reducing blood sugar levels when they are elevated - mainly in diabetics. Allicin in addition, has a demonstrated anti-thrombotic effect, helping in reducing the rate of blood clot formation. This compound also has the ability to lower blood pressure and helps in reducing elevated cholesterol levels in the blood.

Applications

Cloves:
FRESH GARLIC CLOVES - Fresh slightly bruised cloves of garlic can be rubbed on acne covered skin as a treatment. Fresh garlic cloves can also be mashed and used on warts and verrucas, or to draw out corns and soothe irritated skin. Garlic cloves can be regularly consumed as part of the diet in the form of a prophylactic herbal remedy - to ward off the risk of infection. Consuming garlic on a regular basis also helps in reducing high cholesterol levels in the blood, which leads to an improved functioning of the cardiovascular system. Garlic also helps lower blood sugar levels and diabetics can consume some cloves as a part of the meals daily. To treat all kinds of digestive disorders, three to six crushed cloves can be eaten daily, especially when dealing with acute conditions such as severe digestive disorders - including gastroenteritis, dysentery, intestinal worms, and other infections of the digestive system.
HERBAL GARLIC JUICE – Garlic cloves can be turned into a juice, this drink relieves digestive disorders and infections. Drinking the juice daily will also help a person fight chronic atherosclerosis.
MACERATION – Three or four cloves of garlic can be steeped over night in a little water or milk. This garlic liquor can be used the next day for ridding the body of intestinal parasites.
CAPSULES – Powdered garlic is also made into capsules. This form is an aromatic alternative to the commercial "pearls." There are distinct benefits associated with using garlic in this form; recent clinical trials have shown that daily consumption of two g of the powder in capsule form actually prevented the incidence of additional heart attacks in individuals who had already undergone an attack earlier. Infections such as thrush can also be alleviated by taking the capsules daily.
PEARLS – This form of the garlic remedy can be use as an alternative to the capsule form. One thing to remember is that the greater the "deodorized" state of the pearls, the less is their effectiveness. Strong odors suggest potency in the remedy.

Collection and harvesting

Garlic is harvested when the tops of the plant dry up and starts bending; the bulbs are pulled up at this stage. The mature plants possessing the large and multi-clove bulbs are pulled out straight from the ground and then dried in the sun for about a week's time. After this initial airing, each one is trimmed down or a braid is made from the stalks - this is then hung as garlic "ropes" in the shade for an additional period of drying in the open air.
Once the bulbs are completely dry, they are stored in a cool, dry and dark place - this space should have good circulation of air. The bulbs must not be kept in the kitchen as cooking heat often dries out the bulbs and the garlic becomes inedible. People who may require a lot of garlic lying within easy reach during cooking can store garlic bulbs inside a closed jar - this prevents the pungent odor of the garlic from penetrating other food items kept nearby.
Regarded as an easily stored herb, garlic bulbs can be kept up to six months if stored in a dry and dark location, the ambient temperature in the storage space must not exceed 0°C - 32°F - to ensure the preservation of the distinct taste and other characteristics such as the tangy smell.

Garlic butter

  • 6 garlic cloves, minced
  • 1 cup boiling water
  • 1/2 cup soft butter
  • 2 Tbs. fresh parsley, finely minced
  • Salt and pepper to taste

Set the unpeeled cloves in the boiling water. Bring to a boil, and boil 5 minutes. Drain, peel, and rinse the cloves under cold water. Return to the boiling water, and allow the water to boil up once more. Drain the garlic again, and with the salt and pepper, pound it to a smooth paste in the bottom of a small bowl.
Beat the butter into the garlic. Use 1 teaspoon with broiled or boiled fish, with hamburgers, steaks, boiled potatoes, or to enrich sauces made with drippings from roasts.

Herb and garlic cheese

This is an extremely easy way to transform an ordinary creamy cheese into a gourmet item, at a fraction of the price of the ready-made product. You can use full-fat cream cheese, curd cheese, or sieved cottage cheese but, if you opt for the latter, you will need to add 3 tablespoons of double cream to achieve the right consistency. As with herb butter, delicately flavoured herbs with fairly soft leaves, such as chives, chervil or parsley, are best for herb cheese.

  • 225g/8 oz cream or curd cheese, or sieved cottage cheese
  • 2-3 tablespoons finely chopped fresh herbs
  • 1/2 clove finely chopped garlic

Work the garlic and herbs into the cheese with a fork, until all the ingredients are well combined. Form into a round, place on a dish, cover with cling film, and refrigerate before serving.

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